The mathematical concepts of randomness were first developed in economics in the 17th century, primarily in the context of problems of gambling and games of chance.
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A highly-focused laser beam can be used to trap microscopic particles. In this technique – known as optical tweezers – forces arise near the focal spot due to radiation pressure of the light beam (acting along the beam direction) and gradient forces which pull the particle towards the high-intensity focal spot.
Along with colleagues Jorge Velasco-Hernandez and David Sanders, LML External Fellow Isaac Pérez Castillo has organised a series of seminars to be held throughout the rest of the year on topics linked to the COVID-19 pandemic.
The seismic quiescence hypothesis asserts that the number of small earthquakes decreases in and around the focal area of a great earthquake near to its time of occurrence.
Hidden Markov models (HMMs) were first introduced in the late 1960s, and later applied widely in areas including speech recognition, bioinformatics, finance and seismology.
Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) are non-autonomous dynamical systems driven by input, the behaviour of which depend on both model parameters and inputs to the system.
The Kathmandu Valley — the most developed and populated region in Nepal – is seismically active and has experienced recurring destructive earthquakes.
Many earthquakes have been induced by human activities, including wastewater disposal, geothermal production, gas injection and hydraulic fracturing (HF).
Scientists still lack a fundamental understanding of how and when complex many-body systems out of equilibrium will relax back to thermal equilibrium. Empirically, many systems do relax readily, justifying many of the core approximations of thermodynamics.
Many random processes lack memory – that is, the probability distribution for change over any time interval depends on the present state of the process but remains independent of how it behaved previously.